This Critical Companion to Ernest Hemingway is an extensive revision and reorganization of Hemingway A to Z, a 1999 work that involved the help of several people in Hemingway studies. I am especially grateful to four who assisted me even further with this book. William B. Watson sent me suggestions for the A to Z almost as soon as he had a copy in hand, and nearly all of his ideas have been incorporated into this volume; Peter L. Hays sent me more than 20 pages of suggestions, apparently the result of reading the A to Z page by page, if not entry by entry, in an attempt to help improve this Critical Companion. Robert W. Lewis and Albert J. DeFazio III also offered additional ideas for this new volume. I am indebted to all of these friends for their assistance.
For critical material on the short stories, Paul Smith's A Reader's Guide to the Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway (1998) was invaluable. With its summaries of "composition history," "publication history," "sources and influences," "critical stud¬ies," plus bibliographical lists for each of 55 short stories, Smith's book is important for any library of secondary Hemingway material on the most important stories.