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Three books that were especially important to me in the early stages of research were Ice Blink: The Tragic Fate of Sir John Franklin’s Lost Polar Expedition by Scott Cookman (John Wiley amp; Sons, Inc., © 2000); Frozen in Time: The Fate of the Franklin Expedition by Owen Beattie and John Geiger (Greystone Books, Douglas amp; McIntyre, © 1987); and The Arctic Graiclass="underline" The Quest for the Northwest Passage and the North Pole, 1818-1909 by Pierre Berton (Second Lyons Press Edition, © 2000).

These books led me to some of their invaluable sources, including Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea (John Murray, © 1823) and Narrative of a Second Expedition to the Shores of the Polar Sea (John Murray, © 1828), both by Sir John Franklin; Sir John Franklin’s Last Arctic Expedition by Richard Cyriax (ASM Press, © 1939); The Bomb Vessel by Chris Ware (Naval Institute Press, © 1994); A Narrative of the Discovery of the Fate of Sir John Franklin by F. L. M’Clintock (John Murray, © 1859); In Quest of the Northwest Passage (Longmans, Green amp; Co, © 1958); Journal of a Voyage in Baffin’s Bay and Barrow Straits, in the Years 1850-51, Performed by H.M. Ships “Lady Franklin” and “Sophia” Under the Command of Mr. William Penny, in Search of the Missing Crew of H.M. Ships “Erebus” and “Terror” by Peter Sutherland (Longman, Grown, Green, and Longmans, © 1852); and Arctic Expeditions in Search of Sir John Franklin by Elisha Kent Kane (T. Nelson amp; Sons, © 1898).

Other sources frequently consulted include Prisoners of the North: Portraits of Five Arctic Immortals by Pierre Berton (Carroll amp; Graff, © 2004); Ninety Degrees North: The Quest for the North Pole by Fergus Fleming (Grove Press, © 2001); The Last Voyage of the Karluk: A Survivor’s Memoir of Arctic Disaster by William Laird McKinlay (St. Martin’s Griffin Edition, © 1976); A Sea of Words: A Lexicon and Companion for Patrick O’Brian’s Seafaring Tales by Dean King (Henry Holt amp; Co., © 1995); The Ice Master: The Doomed 1913 Voyage of the Karluk by Jennifer Niven (Hyperion, © 2000); Rowing to Latitude: Journeys Along the Arctic’s Edge by Jill Fredston (North Point Press, a Division of Fartar, Straus and Giroux, © 2001); Weird and Tragic Shores: The Story of Charles Francis Hall, Explorer by Chauncey Loomis (Modern Library Paperback Edition, © 2000); The Crystal Desert: Summers in Antarctica by David G. Campbell (Mariner Books, Houghton Mifflin, © 1992); The Last Place on Earth: Scott and Amundsen’s Race to the South Pole by Roland Huntford (The Modern Library, © 1999); North to the Night: A Spiritual Odyssey in the Arctic by Alvah Simon (Broadway Books, © 1998); In the Land of White Death: An Epic Story of Survival in the Siberian Arctic by Valerian Albanov (Modern Library, © 2000); End of the Earth: Voyages to Antarctica by Peter Matthiessen (National Geographic, © 2003); Fatal Passage: The Story of John Rae, the Arctic Hero Time Forgot by Ken McGoogan (Carrol amp; Graf, © 2001); The Worst Journey in the World by Apsley Cherry-Garrard (National Geographic, © 1992 and 2000); and Shackleton by Roland Huntford (Fawcett Columbine, © 1985).

Other sources consulted include The Inuit by Nancy Bonvillain (Chelsea House Publications, © 1995); Eskimos by Kaj Birket-Smith (Crown, © 1971); The Fourth World by Sam Hall (Knopf, © 1987); Ancient Land: Sacred Whale – The Inuit Hunt and Its Rituals by Tom Lowenstein (Farrar, Straus and Giroux, © 1993); The Igloo by Charlotte and David Yue (Houghton Mifflin, © 1988); Arctic Crossing by Jonathan Waterman (Knopf, © 2001); Hunters of the Polar North – The Eskimos by Wally Herbert (Time-Life Books, © 1981); The Eskimos by Ernest S. Burch Jr. (University of Oklahoma Press, © 1988); and Inuit: When Words Take Shape by Raymond Brousseau (Editions Glénat, © 2002).

My sincere thanks to Karen Simmons for finding… and returning… many of these later sources.

Internet sources were too many to list, but they include The Aujaqsquittuq Project: Documenting Arctic Climate Change; Spiritism On Line; The Franklin Trial; Enchanted Learning: Animals – Polar Bear (Ursus martimus); Collections Canada; Digital Library Upenn; Radiworks.cbe; Wordgumbo – Canadian Inuit-English Dictionary; Alaskool English to Iñupia; Inuktitut Language Phrases; Darwin Wars; Cangeo.ca Special Feature – Sir John Franklin Expedition; and SirJohnFranklin.com.

The Internet was also my primary access route to primary source materials, including the Francis Crozier Collection, held at Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge; the Sophia Cracroft Collection (ibid); Sophia Cracroft correspondence; Notes for the Memoir of Jane Franklin. Also included are details of ships’ musters, dates, and official documents from the Records of the British Admiralty, Naval Forces, and Royal Marines; records from the Home Office (UK), and legal documents concerning the investigation into the Goldner food canning irregularities from the Supreme Court of Judicature (UK).

Useful illustrations and maps came from Harper’s Weekly (April 1851), The Athenaeum (February 1849), Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine (November 1855), and other sources.

The letter from Dr. Harry D. S. Goodsir to his uncle, 2 July 1845, is in the collection of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society and was quoted in Frozen in Time: The Fate of the Franklin Expedition by Owen Beattie and John Geiger.

Finally, my sincere thanks to my agent, Richard Curtis; to my first editor at Little, Brown, Michael Mezzo; to my current editor, Reagan Arthur; and – as always – to Karen and Jane Simmons for encouraging me to go on and then waiting for me while I was on this particularly long Arctic expedition.


Dan Simmons is the Hugo Award-winning author of Hyperion and The Fall of Hyperion and their sequels, Endymion and The Rise of Endymion. He has written the critically acclaimed suspense novels Darwin’s Blade and The Crook Factory, as well as other highly respected works including Summer of Night, its sequel, A Winter Haunting, and Song of Kali, Carrion Comfort, Ilium , and Olympos. Simmons makes his home in Colorado.