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8. For a first and careful discussion of this important question, see T. Douglas, «Moral Enhancement,» J. Appl. Phil. 25:228–245 (2008).

9. Alexander Shulgin and Ann Shulgin, PiHKAL: A Chemical Love Story (Transform Press, 1991); and Alexander Shulgin, TiHKAL: The Continuation (Transform Press, 1997).

10. W. N. Pahnke & W. A. Richards, «Implications of LSD and Experimental Mysticism,» Jour. Religion & Health 5:179 (1966).

11. R. R. Griffiths et al., «Psilocybin Can Occasion Mystical-Type Experiences Having Substantial and Sustained Personal Meaning and Spiritual Significance,» Psychopharm. 187:268–283 (2006).

12. R. R. Griffiths et al., «Mystical-Type Experiences Occasioned by Psilocybin Mediate the Attribution of Personal Meaning and Spiritual Significance 14 Months Later,» Jour. Psychopharm. 22:621–632 (2008).

13. N. Malleson, «Acute Adverse Reactions to LSD in Clinical and Experimental Use in the United Kingdom,» Br. Jour. Psychiatry 118:229–230 (1971).

14. S. Cohen, «Lysergic Acid Diethylamide: Side Effects and Complications,» Jour. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 130:30–40 (1960).

15. See R. J. Strassman, «Adverse Reactions to Psychedelic Drugs: A Review of the Literature,» Jour. Nerv. Men. Dis. 172:577–595 (1984); J. H. Halpern & H. G. Pope, «Do Hallucinogens Cause Residual Neuropsychological Toxicity?» Drug Alcohol Depend. 53:247–256 (1999); M. W. Johnson et al., «Human Hallucinogen Research: Guidelines for Safety,» Jour. Psychopharm. 22:603–620 (2008). In the most recent and comprehensive review of the scientific literature, the authors actually make the interesting (and perhaps bold) claim that «The incidence of psychotic reactions, suicide attempts, and suicides during treatment with LSD […] appears comparable to the rate of complications during conventional psychotherapy.» See Torsten Passie et al., «The Pharmacology of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide: A Review,» CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics 14:295–314 (2008).

16. B. Vastag, «Poised to Challenge Need for Sleep, 'Wakefulness Enhancer' Rouses Concerns,» Jour. Amer. Medic. Assoc. 291(2):167 (2004).

17. See Judy Illes, Neuroethics: Defining the Issues in Theory, Practice, and Policy (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005); and P. R. Wolpe et al., «Emerging Neurotechnologies for Lie-Detection: Promises and Perils,» Amer. Jour. Bioethics 5(2):39–49 (2005); or T. Metzinger, «Exposing Lies,» Scientific American MIND, October/November:32–37 (2006).

18. Haim Harari, «Democracy May Be on Its Way Out» (2006), www.edge.org/q2006/q06_2.htmlfflharari.



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