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Программа курса

Тема 1. Предмет политической антропологии

Антропология – универсальная наука о человеке. Политическая антропология – часть антропологической науки, занимающаяся изучением становления и развития механизмов социального контроля и власти. Предмет и объект политической антропологии. Методы политической антропологии. Политическая антропология и другие социальные и гуманитарные науки: взаимосвязь и различия в предмете и методах исследования.

Культурная и социальная антропология. Формализм, субстантивизм и марксизм. Принципиальные отличия политических отношений в индустриальных и неиндустриальных обществах: вещные и личностные отношения, богатство и престиж, товар и дар. Работы М. Мосса о дарообмене. Феномен потлача. Б. Малиновский. Реципрокация. Редистрибуция. К Поланьи.

Тема 2. История политической антропологии

Истоки политической антропологии. Колониальная экспансия и развитие этнографических исследований. Г. Спенсер. "Древнее общество" Л.-Г. Моргана. "Происхождение семьи…" Ф. Энгельса. Становление политантропологической науки. "Африканские политические системы". Основные школы и течения. Функционализм. Структурализм. "Политическая антропология" Ж. Баландье. Американский неоэволюционизм. Л. Уайт. М. Салннз. Типологии стадий политической интеграции (Э. Сервис, М. Фрид). "Энергетическая" теория власти Р. Адамса. Дискуссия о происхождении государства.

Разработка проблем политической антропологии в отечественной науке. Догматический советский марксизм в освещении Э. Геллнера. Неомарксистские интерпретации. Три дискуссии об азиатском способе производства в отечественной историографии. Работы о культуре средних веков АЛ. Гуревича. "Потестарно-политическая этнография" Л.Е. Куббеля. Постсоветская антропология.

Тема 3. Социобиологические основы неравенства и власти

Политическое поведение у высших животных. Этология. Социобиология. К. Лоренц. Э. Вилсон. Естественные основы неравенства и власти: индивидуальные способности, возрастное неравенство, половая стратификация. Механизм территориальности. Этническое и расовое неравенство. Агрессивное и альтруистическое поведение. Доминирование. Структурная иерархия.

Тема 4. Культурные основы неравенства и власти

Причины социального неравенства: собственность, доступ к ресурсам, статус, престиж, авторитет. Социальная стратификация и ее формы (П. Сорокин). Представления о социальной справедливости. Понятие социальной мобильности. Вертикальная и горизонтальная мобильность. Индивидуальное и коллективное проникновение.