Выбрать главу

The Russian FSB “Fabrika trollei,” RBK, Oct. 17, 2017, is the original report; see also Shaun Walker, “Russian troll factory paid US activists,” TG, Oct. 17, 2017.

It was clear in 2016 Krutskikh: Scott Shane, “The Fake Americans Russia Created,” NYT, Sept. 7, 2017. Revenge: Massimo Calabresi, “Hacking Democracy,” Time, May 29, 2017, 32. Pervyi Kanaclass="underline" Oct. 9, 2016, 31169. Putin: Andrew Higgins, “Maybe Private Russian Hackers Meddled in Election, Putin Says,” NYT, June 1, 2017.

American exceptionalism proved Hillary Clinton, who was perhaps the single American with the most reason to be concerned, did not expect an attack of this kind (What Happened, 333). See also Donna Brazile, Hacks, 135.

In a cyberwar, an “attack surface” Elizabeth Dwoskin, Adam Entous, and Craig Timberg, “Google uncovers Russian-bought ads,” NYT, Oct. 9, 2017; Mike Isaac and Daisuke Wakabayashi, “Russian Influence Reached 126 Million Through Facebook Alone,” NYT, Oct. 30, 2017, and sources cited below. For Facebook’s review, see Jen Weedon, William Nuland, and Alex Stamos, “Information Operations and Facebook,” April 27, 2017.

In all likelihood 5.8 million: Craig Timberg and Elizabeth Dowskin, “Facebook takes down data,” WP, Oct. 12, 2017; Graham Kates, “Facebook Deleted 5.8 million accounts just before the 2016 election,” CBS, Oct. 31, 2017. 470 from Internet Research Agency: Jon Swaine and Luke Harding, “Russia funded Facebook and Twitter investments through Kushner investor,” TG, Nov. 5, 2017. No disclaimer: April Glaser, “Political ads on Facebook Now Need to Say Who Paid for Them,” Slate, Dec. 18 2017. Estimates of shares: Craig Timberg, “Russian propaganda,” WP, Oct. 5, 2017. Events pages: David McCabe, “Russian Facebook Campaign Included 100+ Event Pages,” Axios, Jan. 26, 2018. 3,000 ads: Mike Snider, “See the fake Facebook ads Russians ran,” USA Today, Nov. 1, 2017; Scott Shane, “These Are the Ads Russia Bought on Facebook in 2016,” NYT, Nov. 1, 2017. See also the collection by UsHadrons at medium.com/​@ushadrons. 60 million: Nicholas Confessore et al., “Buying Online Influencers,” NYT, Jan. 28, 2018.

Americans were not exposed For the ads, see previous note. Susceptibilities: Calabresi, “Hacking Democracy.” See also Adam Entous, Craig Timberg, and Elizabeth Dwoskin, “Russian operatives used Facebook ads,” WP, Sept. 25, 2017; Nicholas Confessore and Daisuke Wkabayashi, “How Russia Harvested American Rage,” NYT, Oct. 9, 2017. Rifle example: Rebecca Shabad, “Russian Facebook ad showed black woman,” CBS, Oct. 3, 2017. Muslim example: “Russian Propaganda Pushed Pro-Hillary Rally,” DB, Sept. 27, 2017; “Russians Impersonated Real American Muslims,” DB, Sept. 27, 2017. This site, interestingly enough, quoted Vladislav Surkov’s favorite rapper, Tupac Shakur. Michigan and Wisconsin: Manu Rajy, Dylan Byers, and Dana Bash, “Russian-linked Facebook ads targeted Michigan and Wisconsin,” CNN, Oct. 4, 2017. Refugees and rapists: Ben Popken, “Russian trolls pushed graphic, racist tweets to American voters,” NBC, Nov. 30, 2017. Trump: in announcing his candidacy, June 15, 2015.

Russian attackers exploited 10%: Onur Varol et al., “Online Human-Bot Interactions: Detection, Estimation, and Characterization,” Proceedings of the Eleventh International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media, March 27, 2017, estimate 9–15% of accounts. On 20% and quotation: Alessandro Bessit and Emilio Ferrara, “Social bots distort the 2016 U.S. Presidential election online discussion,” First Monday, vol. 21, no. 11, Nov. 7, 2016. Estimate that bots as active as humans: Marco T. Bastos and Dan Mercea, “The Brexit Botnet and User-Generated Hyperpartisan News,” Social Science Computer Review, 2017, 4. 2, 752: Ben Popken, “Russian trolls went on attack during key election moments,” NBC, Dec. 20, 2017. Twitter’s later reckoning: Confessore, “Buying Online Influencers.”

Bots were initially used Twitter and text-to-vote: Twitter, “Update: Russian Interference in 2016 US Election, Bots, & Misinformation,” Sept. 28, 2017. North Carolina: Nicole Perlroth et al., “Russian Election Hacking Efforts,” NYT, Sept. 1, 2017. Electoral boards: “Assessing Russian Activities and Intentions in Recent U.S. Elections,” Intelligence Community Assessment, Jan. 6, 2017, iii.

Having used its Twitter bots Convention and debate: Ben Popken, “Russian trolls went on attack during key election moments,” NBC, Dec. 20, 2017. Swing states: “Study: Fake News on Twitter Flooded Swing States,” DB, Sept. 29, 2017. Bots from Brexit: Carrell, “Russian cyber-activists.” Trend and same 1,600: Selina Wang, “Twitter Is Crawling with Bots,” Bloomberg, Oct. 13, 2017.

In the United States in 2016 See citations below. Email hacks: M. D. Shear and M. Rosenberg, “Released Emails Suggest the D.N.C. Derided the Sanders Campaign,” NYT, July 22, 2016; Jenna McLaughlin, Robbie Gramer, and Jana Winter, “Private Email of Top U.S. Russia Intelligence Official Hacked,” Time, July 17, 2017.

During a presidential election year Russia hacked: Thomas Rid, U.S. Senate testimony, March 30, 2017; Frenkel, “Meet Fancy Bear.” Convention atmosphere: Clinton, What Happened, 341; Brazile, Hacks, 8, 9, 15.

According to American The U.S. assessments: NCCIC and FBI Joint Analysis Report, “Grizzly Steppe: Russian Malicious Cyber Activity,” Dec. 29, 2016; “Assessing Russian Activities and Intentions in Recent U.S. Elections,” Intelligence Community Assessment, Jan. 6, 2017. See also U.S. Department of the Treasury, “Issuance of Amended Executive Order 13694; Cyber-Related Sanctions Designations,” Dec. 29, 2016. Trump Jr. and Trump Sr. participation: Jack Shafer, “Week 26,” Politico, Nov. 18, 2017. Quotations: Marshall Cohen, “What we know about Trump Jr.’s exchanges with WikiLeaks,” CNN, Nov. 14, 2017. Trump’s denials: Kurt Eichenwald, “Why Vladimir Putin’s Russia Is Backing Donald Trump,” NW, Nov. 4, 2016.

Leaked emails Guiding to Podesta: “Russia Twitter trolls rushed to deflect Trump bad news,” AP, Nov. 9, 2017. Thirty minutes: Adam Entous and Ellen Nakashima, “Obama’s secret struggle to punish Russia,” WP, June 23, 2017.

As in Poland in 2015 See Brazile, Hacks, 25, 43, 85.

If they take as knowledge Putin quotation: Frenkel, “Meet Fancy Bear.” According to U.S. intelligence, Russia extracted material about Republicans but did not use it. “Assessing Russian Activities and Intentions in Recent U.S. Elections,” Intelligence Community Assessment, Jan. 6, 2017, 3.

The open sources revealed No salary: Philip Bump, “Paul Manafort: An FAQ about Trump’s indicted former campaign chairman,” WP, Oct. 30, 2017. See also: Kate Brannen, “A Timeline of Paul Manafort’s Relationship with Donald Trump,” Slate, Oct. 30, 2017.