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The “pizzagate” Marc Fisher, John Woodrow Cox, and Peter Hermann, “Pizzagate: From rumor, to hashtag, to gunfire in D.C.,” WP, Dec. 6, 2016; Ben Popken, “Russian trolls pushed graphic, racist tweets to American voters,” NBC, Nov. 30, 2017; Mary Papenfuss, “Russian Trolls Linked Clinton to ‘Satanic Ritual,’ ” HP, Dec. 1, 2016.

Russian platforms served Ben Collins, “WikiLeaks Plays Doctor,” DB, Aug. 25, 2016.

Russians exploited Casey Michel, “How the Russians pretended to be Texans,” WP, Oct. 17, 2017; Ryan Grenoble, “Here are some of the ads Russia paid to promote on Facebook,” HP, Nov. 1, 2017. Further on secession: “Is Russia Behind a Secession Effort in California?” The Atlantic, March 1, 2017. The United Kingdom, France, and the European Union were subjects of chapter 3. On Catalonia: David Alandete, “Putin encourages independence movement,” El Pais, Oct. 26, 2017.

Americans trusted Russians TEN_GOP and Obama: “Russia Twitter Trolls rushed to deflect Trump bad news,” AP, Nov. 9, 2017. Conway retweeting: Denise Clifton, “Putin’s Pro-Trump Trolls,” Mother Jones, Oct. 31, 2017. Pasobiec and generally: Kevin Collier, “Twitter Was Warned Repeatedly,” BuzzFeed, Oct. 18, 2017. “Love you back”: Ryan Lenz et al., “100 Days in Trump’s America,” Southern Poverty Law Center, 2017. Flynn: Collins and Poulsen, “Michael Flynn Followed Russian Troll Accounts.”

The rule of law Trump: Speech in Miami, Sept. 16, 2016. On Butina: “The Kremlin and the GOP Have a New Friend—and Boy Does She Love Guns,” DB, Feb. 23, 2017. Specific Russian ads and memes such as “American Gunslinger” are discussed above and below.

Meanwhile, Russian authorities Rosalind S. Helderman and Tom Hamburger, “Guns and religion,” WP, April 30, 2017. Nicholas Fandos, “Operative Offered Trump Campaign ‘Kremlin Connection,’ ” NYT, Dec. 3, 2017.

In February 2016 Butina to Torshin: Matt Apuzzo, Matthew Rosenberg, and Adam Goldman, “Top Russian Official Tried to Broker ‘Backdoor’ Meeting Between Trump and Putin,” NYT, Nov. 18, 2017; also see Tim Mak, “Top Trump Ally Met with Putin’s Deputy in Moscow,” DB, March 2017. Trump Jr. and Torshin: “Trump Jr. met with man with close ties to Kremlin,” CBS, Nov. 20, 2017. NRA and NYT: Amanda Holpuch, “ ‘We’re coming for you,’ ” TG, Aug. 5, 2017. Torshin has denied the charges of criminal money laundering. Paramilitaries: Anton Shekhovtsov, “Slovak Far-Right Allies of Putin’s Regime,” TI, Feb. 8, 2016; Petra Vejvodová, Jakub Janda, and Veronika Víchová, The Russian Connections of Far-Right and Paramilitary Organizations in the Czech Republic (Budapest: Political Capital, 2017); Attila Juhász, Lóránt Györi, Edit Zgut, and András Dezsö, The Activity of Pro-Russian Extremist Groups in Hungary (Budapest: Political Capital, 2017).

In 2013, the Supreme Court Carol Anderson, White Rage (New York, London: Bloomsbury, 2017), 151, 163; Zachary Roth, “The Real Voting Problem in the 2016 Election,” Politico, Oct. 24, 2016. See also Levitsky and Ziblatt, How Democracies Die, 183.

In the election of 2016 Anderson, White Rage, 163, 165, 168.

American race relations Ryan C. Brooks, “How Russians Attempted to Use Instagram to Influence Native Americans,” BuzzFeed, Oct. 23, 2017; Ryan Grenoble, “Here are some of the ads Russia paid to promote on Facebook,” HP, Nov. 1, 2017; Cecilia Kang, “Russia-Financed Ad Linked Clinton and Satan,” NYT, Nov. 2, 2017; Ben Collins, Gideon Resnick, and Spencer Ackerman, “Russia Recruited YouTubers,” DB, Oct. 8, 2017; April Glaser, “Russian Trolls Are Still Co-Opting Black Organizers’ Events,” Technology, Nov. 7, 2017.

Barack Obama’s race Deputy: Elena Chinkova, “Rodnina ‘pokazala’ Obame banan,” KP, Sept. 14, 2013. Birthday: the photographs and commentary are available at the students’ VKontakte page, vk.com/​mskstud?w=wall-73663964_66. Grocery store: Vesti.ru, Dec. 10, 2015, 2698780. Car wash: Amur.info, May 25, 2016, 111458; LifeNews: Life.ru, Dec. 30, 2016, 954218.

Race was on the Russian mind Adam Entous, “House majority leader to colleagues in 2016: ‘I think Putin pays’ Trump,” WP, May 17, 2017. The importance of conventions and customs is a major thesis of Levitsky and Ziblatt, How Democracies Die. Quotation: Vesti, Feb. 20, 2016, 2777956.

In June 2016 In fairness, Senator Lindsey Graham did say in May 2017, “When one party is attacked, all of us should feel an attack.” This was not a view that was widely expressed; and by then it was too late. Camila Domonoske, “Sally Yates Testifies: ‘We Believed Gen. Flynn Was Compromised,’ ” NPR, May 8, 2017.

As Republicans realized McConnelclass="underline" Adam Entous, Ellen Nakashima, and Greg Miller, “Secret CIA assessment says Russia was trying to help Trump win White House,” WP, Dec. 9, 2016; Greg Miller, Ellen Nakashima, and Adam Entous, “Obama’s secret struggle to punish Russia,” WP, June 23, 2017. Quotation: “Background to ‘Assessing Russian Activities and Intentions in Recent US Elections’: The Analytic Process and Cyber Incident Attribution,” Director of National Intelligence (DNI), Jan. 6, 2017.

At the crucial moment This argument about race and Russia was made by Anderson, White Rage, 163; as well as by Ta-Nehisi Coates, “The First White President,” The Atlantic, Oct. 2017, 74–87. Quotation: Aaron Blake, “ ‘I feel like we sort of choked,’ ” WP, June 23, 2017.

To be sure, a number Rubio: Sparrow, “From Maidan to Moscow,” 339. Kasich: Caitlin Yilek, “Kasich campaign launches ‘Trump-Putin 2016’ website,” The Hill, Dec. 19, 2015.

The road to unfreedom On inequality globally, see Paul Collier, The Bottom Billion (Oxford, UK: Oxford UP, 2007). Donald Trump, announcement of candidacy, June 15, 2015: “Sadly, the American dream is dead.”

It is easy to see Trotsky, 2017, dir. Aleksandr Kott and Konstantyn Statskii, debate between Trotsky and Ilyin in episode 8, at 26:20–29.40.

In 2016, Russia Figures from Anastasiya Novatorskaya, “Economic Inequality in the United States and Russia, 1989–2012,” 2017; see also (89% and 76%) Credit Suisse, “Global Wealth Report 2016.” Friends: Anders Åslund, “Russia’s Crony Capitalism,” Zeszyty mBank, no. 128, 2017. Cellist: Luke Harding, “Revealed: the $2bn offshore trail that leads to Vladimir Putin,” TG, April 3, 2006.